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S.3 Geography Notes

Definition of Climate

Climate is the state of the average weather conditions of a given place recorded over a long period of time usually about 35 years and above. Climate of a place is determined when the elements of weather like rainfall and temperature are measured and recorded for a long period of time - 35 years.

Africa’s climate is varied owing to various factors that control the climate.  In Africa, climate experienced is mainly hot and wet although there are some place experience different types of climate like semi desert climate, hot desert climate as well as temperate climate in highland areas.  

The Types of climate and their characteristics

Africa has the following general types of climate:

  • Equatorial climate
  • Savanna climate/tropical continental/Sudan type of climate  
  • Tropical Semi-arid climate  
  • Desert climate
  • Montane/ mountain climate  
  • Mediterranean
  • East margin 


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