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S.3 Geography Notes

Swamp Vegetation

This type of vegetation is found in areas that either seasonally/periodically or permanently flooded.

There are two types of swamp vegetation.  These include;

Swamp forests: There are swamp forest dominated by trees and other woody vegetation.

Swamp vegetation dominated by tall herbaceous vegetation.

This type of vegetation occurs at the edges of Lakes like Victoria and along the river valleys like river Nile, Niger, Kafue and Congo.

Economic Value/benefits

  • It has led to the development of Art and Craft Industry
  • Papyrus for the production of Bio-gas
  • The growing of crops through irrigation. Example Sir Richard Toll in Senegal and Gezira irrigation scheme in Sudan.
  • It has encouraged Fishing and fish farming
  • Grazing of animals in the swampy environment because there is water and natural grassland for the animals to feed on.


Mangrove vegetation is found in the water logged areas and along the coastal areas of West Africa and the East Africa. Mangrove vegetation is characterized by:

  • They have medium height trees.
  • They have hard wood species.
  • They have short stumpy trunks
  • They have evergreen broad leaves.
  • They are dense with bushy stands.
  • They have twisted trunks.
  • They have stilt roots.

Mediterranean vegetation

It is found the Mediterranean basin and Western Cape Province of south Africa.

Mediterranean vegetation is characterized by the following

  • Mediterranean forests are composed of broad leaf evergreen trees like oak, eucalyptus, cork oak, red wood due to wetter winter resist dry summer conditions.
  • Much of the woody vegetation in Mediterranean is sclerophyll or hard leaved.
  • Vegetation generally has small, dark leaves covered with a waxy outer layer to retain moisture in the dry summer months
  • Plants like grape vines have deep tap roots to reach the moist rocks underneath.
  • Some plants have large fleshy bulbous roots which stores water
  • Some trees have thick rough barks to store water during the summer
  • Mediterranean oak form open woodland with evergreen trees.
  • There are sweet smelling herbs and shrubs like lavender, rosemary, thyme and oleander
  • Some trees are Cone shaped trees like pine
  • Short and flat-topped trees like cork oak in the dry areas
  • Mixed type of vegetation with deciduous trees coniferous tough grasses and dwarf trees.
  • Some trees have compact woody stems, bushy shrubs with dense thickets

Activity: outline the benefits of the Mediterranean vegetation and problems faced by the people living in such areas

High veld grassland: Location, characteristics, economic value and problems.


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